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Al-Ghazali on the Lawful & the Unlawful

Yusuf Talal DeLorenzo (tr.)




Book 14 of the Revival of the Religious Sciences


The Book of the Lawful and the Unlawful is the 14th chapter of The Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihya ulum Ad-Din).


In this book, Imam al-Ghazali aims to teach firstly the theory of what is lawful and what is unlawful and how to deal with dubious or ambiguous issues, and secondly how to apply the knowledge they have gained to their everyday lives.




1: On the Excellence of the Lawful and the Reprehensibility of the Unlawful with an Exposition of the Kinds of Lawful and their Rankings and of the Categories of Unlawful and the Degrees of Caution Exercised in Relation to These


2: The Degrees of the Dubious, Its Causes and How it is Distinguished from the Lawful and the Unlawful


3: On Scrutiny and Inquiry or Silence and Disregard and their Indications


4: Extricating the Repentant from Financial Iniquity


5: Grants and Gifts made by Rulers and which of these may be Considered Lawful and which Unlawful


6: What is Lawful in Regard to Socialising with despotic Rulers and Others; and the Categorisation of Attendance at their Courts, of Calling on them and of Showing them Respect


7: A Variety of Issues of Such Importance that Questions Concerning them are Asked in the Fatwa Literature