Eid Mubarak • Selamat Hari Raya
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Kazi

Logic and Critical Thinking: An Introduction for Muslim Students

Edward Ryan Moad

Paperback

9781567446104

 

Contents 

 

Part 1 Basic Concepts: What is Critical Thinking? 

 

Chapter 1. Critical Thinking and Judgment: 1.2. Judgments and Truth 1.3. Critical Thinking and Debate: Separating the Benefits from the Dangers

 

Chapter 2: Propositions: 2.1. Subject and Predicate Terms 2.2. Contradiction and Entailment 

 

Chapter 3: Inference and Argument: 3.1. Arguments and Other Explanations 3.2. Formalizing Arguments and Other Explanations

 

Chapter 4: Inferential Diagrams: 4.1. Linked Inferences and Implicit Premises 4.2. Basic Inferential Analysis in Five Steps 

 

Part 2 Deductive Reasoning

 

Chapter 5: Things and Categories: 5.1. Visualizing Categorical Propositions 5.2. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions 5.3. Applying Venn Diagrams 5.4. Definitions 5.5. Definition Mistakes

 

Chapter 6: Categorical Syllogisms: 6.1. Deduction and Validity 6.2. The Rules of Inference for Categorical Syllogisms

 

Chapter 7: Truth-functional Deductive Argument Forms: 7.1. Modus Ponens (Affirming the Antecedent) 7.2. Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent 7.3. Modus Tollens (Denying the Consequent) 7.4. Fallacy of Denying the Antecedent 7.5. Hypothetical Syllogism 7.6. Bi-conditionals 7.7. Disjunctive Syllogism

 

Chapter 8: Truth-functional Natural Deduction: 8.1. Rules of Inference 8.2. Well-formed formulas 8.3. Replacement Rules 8.4. Constructing Proofs 

 

Part 3 Inductive Reasoning

 

Chapter 9: Inductive Reasoning: 9.1. Analogy 9.2. Analogical Arguments 9.3. Evaluating Analogical Arguments

 

Chapter 10: Inductive Generalization: 10.1. Evaluating Inductive Generalization 10.2. Sample Size 10.3. Sample Representativeness 10.4. Random Sampling 10.5. Stratification 10.6. Inductive Generalization in Natural Science 10.7. Observation 

 

Chapter 11: Causal vs. Statistical Relevance: 11.1. Different Kinds of Causal Relevance 11.2. Causal Conditions 11.3. First Principles of Causal Reasoning 11.4. Hypothetico-Deductive Method 11.5. Mill’s Methods 11.5.1. Method of Agreement 11.5.2. Method of Difference 11.5.3. Method of Agreement and Difference 11.5.4. Concomitant Variations 11.5.5. Method of Residues 

 

Chapter 12: Inference to the Best Explanation: 12.1. Plausibility 12.2. Consistency with Known Facts 12.3. Comprehensiveness 12.4. Explanatory Power 12.5. Simplicity 12.6. Predictability 12.7. The Unfalsifiable